16 de agosto de 2006

Presunciones

Presumir es algo inherente al ser humano. Tanto juzgar o conjeturar algo (primera acepción de la Academia) como vanagloriarse, o cuidar mucho una persona su arreglo para parecer atractiva (segunda y tercera acepciones, respectivamente).
Indudablemente, la más trascendente es la primera, tanto por lo que significa el hecho de que constantemente estemos suponiendo cosas (actitud muy conveniente para el investigador, ya que las hipótesis no dejan de ser presunciones, pero peligrosa para las relaciones humanas: es tan fácil dejarse llevar por lo que se supone...) como por las presunciones legales, concretamente la presunción de inocencia. No hay nada más importante para la salvaguarda de nuestro derecho a la libertad, pero parece que en la actualidad se puede presumir de muchas cosas, salvo de inocencia.
Porque todos los detenidos son presuntos culpables de algo. ¿No sería más adecuado decir que se había detenido al presunto inocente de un delito? Claro que eso de detener a un inocente, aunque sea presunto, queda feo. Pero eso es lo que se hace, ¿no? Ya sé, lo que hay que decir es que se ha detenido al presunto inocente sospechoso de la comisión de un delito. Algo farragoso pero mucho más preciso, dónde va a parar.
Una presunción que siempre me ha gustado, por la candidez que demuestra, es la del valor. A los que hemos hecho la mili nos dieron, al finalizar, la llamada cartilla militar, un documento en el que se reflejaban tus cualidades como soldado. En un apartado figura lo siguiente: Valor, se le supone. Menos mal que no tuvimos que demostrarlo, porque barrunto (otra presunción, ya sé, pero bastante fundada) que, al primer disparo enemigo, la mayoría nos hubiéramos ido, tarareando entre dientes el Imagine de Lennon.
Pero una de las presunciones más fascinantes es la del jamón, contradictoria en sí misma. Id a un supermercado y acercaos a los refigerados. Veréis sobres con lonchas de jamón al vacío en los que, a un lado, está escrito Jamón Serrano; el letrero parece que no deja lugar a dudas: ese sobre contiene jamón serrano. Se puede presumir que es bueno si el aspecto lo confirma, las vetas son adecuadas, la marca es de confianza y, aunque no sea determinante, si es caro. Pero no cabe presumir nada más.
Entonces llevas la vista al otro lado del sobre y allí, en letras tan destacadas como las anteriores pone, sin reparo ni vergüenza, ¡Presunto Serrano! El conflicto se desata y la realidad parece desdibujarse, el pulso se acelera y todo parece dar vueltas. ¿Es serrano o sólo se presume? ¿Es que no puede uno fiarse ya de la letra impresa? Ese pensamiento te hace reflexionar y reparas en las innumerables veces que la letra impresa no ha sido de fiar. Respiras hondo, te estabilizas y, cuando te recuperas y miras de nuevo el sobre con resignada decepción, una información aflora a tu mente y sonríes.
Todo vuelve a encajar y a ajustarse cuando recuerdas que presunto es jamón en portugués.

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